To address it upgrade your host machine to Windows Server 2019 / Windows 10 1809 and use TeamCity docker images compatible with Windows containers 1809.
"Access is denied" or "Access to the path is denied." problem on container start
When docker is starting Windows containers with process isolation it's using SERVICE user account which lacks write access to directory with docker volumes. To resolve it grant for SERVICE user "Full control" permission for "%PROGRAMDATA%\docker\volumes" directory.